Today's photo: another scene from the International Culture fair here at Massey's Auckland campus
‘Restrict’ is to limit something so that only some people – not all – are allowed to use it or they can use it some – but not all – of the time. Some of the papers that students study at university have restrictions – usually more advanced papers are restricted to students who’ve already studied the introductory paper.
Access to laboratories is restricted to students undertaking approved research projects.
There is no formal restriction on the number of references, but it is unlikely that students will want to include more than 20 in a 3000 word essay.
For more examples and links to exercises, click here www.academicenglishgenerator.com and go to Unit 13
This is an example of a short essay written in answer to an examination question in a Marketing paper. It includes a number of keywords from Unit 13 of the Academic English Generator - words which have been focused on during the last three weeks. You have the first three letters of each word - see if you can complete them.
Briefly summarise the key benefits to companies of market segmentation.
Market segmentation is a coh______ approach to the marketing concept: in other words, seeking to understand the specific needs and aspirations of particular consumers (sometimes before they themselves know) so that appropriate products and services can be developed which also satisfy organizational goals.
In order to all _______consumers to a particular segment, the company or marketing agency needs to sti _____ those characteristics which determine the segment, avoiding amb _________ and res ________ themselves to those qualities that can be measured objectively. Common parameters for segmentation are behavioural, geographic and demographic. If a market segment has been identified, we should be able to inf _______ that the members share at least one significant common feature which distinguishes them from other consumers. Members of the segment can then be con ________ in order to acc _________a rich database about their lifestyles and habits and ultimately con __________useful information to all the stakeholders in the business. This will help companies to avoid an inefficient and outdated production focus in which they try to use marketing to ind ________consumers to purchase products and services they do not want or need.
The identification of a clearly-defined market segment will ass _________ them that their marketing mix is well-designed and allow them to reg _______ their advertising spending according to their understanding of the habits and attitudes of their target group. Companies may wish to develop a more neu _______ marketing mix in order to combine different segments and potentially increase their sales, but there is always a risk that a competitor may then segment the market again by offering a more attractive marketing mix to a specific group of these consumers. This demonstrates that market segmentation is an essentially fluid process in which product and service providers need to reinvent themselves according to their understanding of changing cultures and societies.
v ‘Stakeholder’ has two meanings – one narrow and the other one wide. The narrow meaning is used when you talk about investments. The number of shares you have in a company is called your stake, so a stakeholder can be used as another word for a shareholder. However, it’s often used in a wider sense to mean anyone involved or affected by a decision. So, in business, the stakeholders could include the directors of the company, investors, employees, customers, neighbours and government officials.
Kiwi Culture question:
Which of these is NOT a New Zealand native bird?
Vocabulary for the article: a crackdown / to bombard sb with sth / a violation / a breach / a watchdog / tax evasion / rife / to pledge / transparency / scepticism / spite
Questions for the article:
Why did the government post the tax details of all Italian citizens on the web?
Who accessed the details?
Why was the information taken down?